Treatment of choice for squamous cell carcinoma in anus
The type of treatment your cancer care team will recommend depends on the type of anal cancer, where it is, and how far it has spread the stage. This way you can get the best treatment available now and may also get the treatments that are thought to be even better. Anal tumors affecting the anal margin or the perianal skin and not the anal canal are sometimes treated differently from anal canal cancers. At this stage, the cancer is still only in the inner lining of the anus and has not grown into deeper layers.
Anal cancer – Knowledge for medical students and physicians
In this review, a summary of our current understanding of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus SCCA and the advances in our knowledge of SCCA regarding screening, prevention, the role of the immune system, current treatment and the potential for novel targets are discussed. The present standard of care in terms of treatment is 5-fluorouracil 5-FU and mitomycin C MMC concurrently with radiation, which results in a high level of disease control for small early cancers. Preservation of the anal sphincter is achieved in the majority, although anorectal function is often impaired. Although evidence from prospective studies to support a change in the treatment strategy is lacking, patients with HPV-negative SCCA appear to be less responsive to chemoradiation CRT and relapse more frequently. In contrast, HPV-positive tumours usually fare better, but oncological outcomes are modified by smoking and immune incompetence. There is current interest in escalating the radiotherapy dose for larger, more advanced tumours, and de-escalating treatment for HPV-positive tumours. The use of novel immunological treatments to target the underlying different molecular pathways of HPV-positive cancers is exciting.
Anal cancer is a rare tumor. Risk factors include infection with human papillomavirus HPV , immunodeficiency , and receptive anal intercourse. Anal cancer presents mainly as squamous cell carcinoma and in rare cases as adenocarcinoma or other non-epidermoid cancers. If the condition is treated in its early stages, the prognosis is favorable.
Prior to the mids, the treatment of choice for anal cancer was abdominoperineal resection. Currently, combined chemoradiation is the standard of care. Or objective was to analyze results of treatment for anal canal carcinoma treated with combined chemoradiation.