Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients.
Hormone therapy for transgender patients
Transgender hormone therapy (male-to-female) - Wikipedia
In transgender men, or trans masculine people FTM , the most common medication used for transition is testosterone. Administration of testosterone via transdermal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, or oral routes lowers serum estradiol levels, raises serum testosterone levels, and results in the development of typical male secondary sex characteristics. Irreversible changes include: deepening of the voice, increase in facial and body hair growth, clitoral enlargement clitoromegaly , and thickened facial bone structure. Some trans men also describe changes in emotions e. Adverse effects can include elevations in blood pressure, polycythemia, worsening of lipid profile, elevations in glucose, elevations in transaminases, acne, and effects on fertility although testosterone is not an effective contraceptive as it does not interrupt ovulation, so pregnancy can still occur. Finasteride can also be used to prevent male-pattern baldness in transgender men, as it only blocks dihydrotestosterone DHT , not testosterone itself; however this will likely slow or decrease secondary hair growth, and may slow or decrease clitoromegaly as well.
Transgender hormone therapy
Transgender hormone therapy , also sometimes called cross-sex hormone therapy , is a form of hormone therapy in which sex hormones and other hormonal medications are administered to transgender or gender nonconforming individuals for the purpose of more closely aligning their secondary sexual characteristics with their gender identity. This form of hormone therapy is given as one of two types, based on whether the goal of treatment is feminization or masculinization :. Some intersex people may also undergo hormone therapy, either starting in childhood to confirm the sex they were assigned at birth , or later in order to align their sex with their gender identity.
Transgender individuals experience incongruity between their sense of gender and their assigned sex at birth. Psychological distress resulting from this incongruity is known as gender dysphoria. Increasing numbers of transgender individuals are presenting for medical care, probably because of gradually increasing societal acceptance and awareness. Most individuals will have their care started by specialists in transgender health.